A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Study of Paclitaxel plus Carboplatin versus Oral Uracil-Tegafur as the Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Resected Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

J Thorac Oncol. 2018 May;13(5):699-706. doi: 10.1016/j.jtho.2018.02.015. Epub 2018 Mar 2.


Introduction: We conducted a randomized controlled study to compare the survival benefit of paclitaxel plus carboplatin and oral uracil-tegafur (UFT) as adjuvant chemotherapy in resected NSCLC.

Methods: In an open-label multicenter trial, patients with pathological stage IB to IIIA NSCLC were randomized into a group receiving paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) plus carboplatin (area under the curve 5) every 3 weeks for four cycles (arm A) or a group receiving orally administered UFT (250 mg/m2) daily for 2 years (arm B). The primary and secondary end points were overall survival and relapse-free survival and toxicity, respectively.

Results: Between November 2004 and November 2010, 402 patients from 40 institutions were included (201 in each arm). The median follow-up period was 6.5 years. The 5-year overall survival rate was 70% (95% confidential interval [CI]: 63-76] in arm A versus 73% (95% CI: 66-78) in arm B (hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.55-1.41, p = 0.69). There was no significant difference in the 5-year relapse-free survival rate between arms A and B (56% versus 57% [hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.63-1.34, p = 0.50]). Toxicities were well tolerated and there was no treatment-related death. Toxicities of any grade or grade 4 were significantly more frequent in the paclitaxel plus carboplatin group (95.7% and 22.1%, respectively) than in the UFT group (76.5% and 1.0%, respectively [p < 0.0001 in both]).

Conclusions: As adjuvant chemotherapy, paclitaxel plus carboplatin was no better than UFT in terms of survival among patients with stage IB to IIIA NSCLC tumors who underwent complete resection (UMIN000000810).

Keywords: Non–small cell lung cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy; carboplatin; paclitaxel; uracil-tegafur.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Carboplatin / administration & dosage
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tegafur / therapeutic use*


  • Tegafur
  • Carboplatin
  • Paclitaxel