Extrema-weighted feature extraction for functional data

Bioinformatics. 2018 Jul 15;34(14):2457-2464. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bty120.


Motivation: Although there is a rich literature on methods for assessing the impact of functional predictors, the focus has been on approaches for dimension reduction that do not suit certain applications. Examples of standard approaches include functional linear models, functional principal components regression and cluster-based approaches, such as latent trajectory analysis. This article is motivated by applications in which the dynamics in a predictor, across times when the value is relatively extreme, are particularly informative about the response. For example, physicians are interested in relating the dynamics of blood pressure changes during surgery to post-surgery adverse outcomes, and it is thought that the dynamics are more important when blood pressure is significantly elevated or lowered.

Results: We propose a novel class of extrema-weighted feature (XWF) extraction models. Key components in defining XWFs include the marginal density of the predictor, a function up-weighting values at extreme quantiles of this marginal, and functionals characterizing local dynamics. Algorithms are proposed for fitting of XWF-based regression and classification models, and are compared with current methods for functional predictors in simulations and a blood pressure during surgery application. XWFs find features of intraoperative blood pressure trajectories that are predictive of postoperative mortality. By their nature, most of these features cannot be found by previous methods.

Availability and implementation: The R package 'xwf' is available at the CRAN repository: https://cran.r-project.org/package=xwf.

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Computational Biology / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications*
  • Software*
  • Treatment Outcome