Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare safety and efficacy of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and percutaneous liver biopsy (PLB) with tract embolization in pediatric patients with liver disease.
Materials and methods: TJLB and PLB between December 2009 and October 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Primary endpoints were adequate sampling and complication rate. Patient age, weight, coagulation factors, ascites, blood transfusions, adequacy of biopsy sample, number of biopsy samples, and complications were compared.
Results: There were 39 TJLB (average age 10.6 years) and 120 PLB (average age 7.1 years) (P value <0.05). Average weight was 40.2 kg for TJLB and 26.8 kg for PLB (P value <0.05). Average platelets were 155 for TJLB and 252 for PLB (P value <0.05). Average international normalized ratio was 1.7 for TJLB and 1.3 for PLB (P value <0.05). Mean postbiopsy hematocrit decrease was 0.8 and 0.9, for TJLB and PLB, respectively. Mean postbiopsy hemoglobin decrease was 0.3 in both groups. Number of core biopsy samples was 4.5 and 4.3, for TJLB and PLB, respectively. There was 1 biopsy yielding insufficient sample in each group. TJLB had 1 (2.6%) complication of supraventricular tachycardia. PLB had 4 (3.3%) complications, with 1 hemoperitoneum, 1 hypotension, 1 patient with decreased hemoglobin, and 1 patient with bilious drainage from the biopsy site.
Conclusions: TJLB and PLB with gelatin sponge pledget tract embolization are both safe and effective for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in pediatric patients. To avoid radiation, PLB may be considered as first-line approach in the pediatric population, even in the setting of coagulopathy.