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Review
. 2018 Mar 6;10(3):66.
doi: 10.3390/cancers10030066.

Evolution of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan

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Free PMC article
Review

Evolution of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan

Osama Mohamad et al. Cancers (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Charged particles can achieve better dose distribution and higher biological effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy. Carbon ions are considered an optimal candidate for cancer treatment using particles. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan was the first radiotherapy hospital dedicated for carbon ion treatments in the world. Since its establishment in 1994, the NIRS has pioneered this therapy with more than 69 clinical trials so far, and hundreds of ancillary projects in physics and radiobiology. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of carbon ion radiotherapy at the NIRS and some of the current and future projects in the field.

Keywords: CIRT; NIRS; National Institute of Radiological Sciences; carbon ion radiotherapy; particle therapy.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Organizational structure of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Other departments not included in the diagram: Research Planning and Promotion Office, Dept. of Administrative Services, Dept. of Engineering and Safety, and Quality Assurance and Audit Office.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Simplified schematic diagram showing the relationship between atomic mass, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for different particles in comparison to photons. The size of each circle represents atomic mass (not drawn to scale).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Overview of the HIMAC and New Particle Therapy Research Facilities at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan.
Figure 4
Figure 4
(A) Schematic diagram of the actual gantry seen in (B). Superconducting magnets, beam nozzle, and patient location are labelled. (C) A photograph showing a phantom patient on the robotic couch with the gantry in a slightly titled position. Also seen in the picture: the computer-based patient positioning system coordinates (red asterisk) and the flat panel detectors (blue asterisks).

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