Aims: To test a commercially available enriched chicken bone broth (ECBB) product for its potential anti-inflammatory properties and to evaluate its ability to reduce nociception and expression of protein kinase A (PKA) in a clinically relevant model of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) caused by prolonged jaw opening in rats.
Methods: The potential of the ECBB and of a homemade broth was investigated using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and percent inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, which was determined using a commercially available kit. Additionally, the effect of ECBB and homemade broth on nocifensive head withdrawal responses to mechanical stimulation in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to prolonged jaw opening was evaluated. Differences were considered significant at P < .025. Changes in PKA expression in the medullary dorsal horn region of the spinal trigeminal nucleus associated with prolonged jaw opening were assessed using immunofluorescence, and these changes were considered significant at P < .05. Behavioral data were analyzed by using multiple nonparametric tests, and immunohistochemistry data were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance with Games-Howell post hoc tests in SPSS software.
Results: ECBB exhibited greater reducing potential and inhibition of COX-2 activity compared to homemade broth. Near maximal jaw opening was sufficient to induce sustained nocifensive responses to mechanical stimuli for 7 days. This increased sensitivity was correlated with elevated levels of the active form of PKA. Importantly, dietary inclusion of ECBB, but not of homemade broth, for 2 weeks prior to jaw opening was sufficient to reduce nocifensive behaviors and PKA expression.
Conclusion: Findings from this study provide evidence that ECBB attenuates nociception and expression of the pro-inflammatory protein PKA and thus may be beneficial as a nutraceutical supplement to manage inflammatory pain associated with TMD.