359 patients underwent laparoscopy to verify the diagnosis of salpingitis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) was found in 187 (52%) cases. Laparoscopy revealed normal conditions in 136 (37%) cases. Other diseases were diagnosed in 36 (10%) cases. Bacteriological cultures from the fimbrial lumen were positive in 24% of the PID cases. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) was detected in 12%, Bacteroides species (BS) in 5%, Actinomyces israelii (AI) in 3%, Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) in 2%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in 1%, and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in 1%. Cervical cultures were positive for NG and/or CT in 71% of the PID cases but only in 19% of the non-PID cases. From these no positive intra-abdominal cultures were detected. Serological tests for CT were carried out. A positive acute titre of greater than or equal to 1/64 was noted in 37%, a seroconversion (X4) 2-3 weeks later was found in 14%. Positive serology despite a negative culture was registered in 19%.