Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), the cell's hydrogen carrier for redox enzymes, is well known for its role in redox reactions. More recently, it has emerged as a signaling molecule. By modulating NAD+-sensing enzymes, NAD+ controls hundreds of key processes from energy metabolism to cell survival, rising and falling depending on food intake, exercise, and the time of day. NAD+ levels steadily decline with age, resulting in altered metabolism and increased disease susceptibility. Restoration of NAD+ levels in old or diseased animals can promote health and extend lifespan, prompting a search for safe and efficacious NAD-boosting molecules that hold the promise of increasing the body's resilience, not just to one disease, but to many, thereby extending healthy human lifespan.
Keywords: CD38; PARP1; STAC; aging; cancer; cardiovascular disease; chromatin; epigenetics; inflammation; nicotinamide mononucleotide; nicotinamide riboside; sirtuins.
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