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Review
. 2018 Mar 7;221(Pt Suppl 1):jeb165381.
doi: 10.1242/jeb.165381.

Non-adrenergic Control of Lipolysis and Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissues

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Review

Non-adrenergic Control of Lipolysis and Thermogenesis in Adipose Tissues

Katharina Braun et al. J Exp Biol. .
Free article

Abstract

The enormous plasticity of adipose tissues, to rapidly adapt to altered physiological states of energy demand, is under neuronal and endocrine control. In energy balance, lipolysis of triacylglycerols and re-esterification of free fatty acids are opposing processes operating in parallel at identical rates, thus allowing a more dynamic transition from anabolism to catabolism, and vice versa. In response to alterations in the state of energy balance, one of the two processes predominates, enabling the efficient mobilization or storage of energy in a negative or positive energy balance, respectively. The release of noradrenaline from the sympathetic nervous system activates lipolysis in a depot-specific manner by initiating the canonical adrenergic receptor-Gs-protein-adenylyl cyclase-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A pathway, targeting proteins of the lipolytic machinery associated with the interface of the lipid droplets. In brown and brite adipocytes, lipolysis stimulated by this signaling pathway is a prerequisite for the activation of non-shivering thermogenesis. Free fatty acids released by lipolysis are direct activators of uncoupling protein 1-mediated leak respiration. Thus, pro- and anti-lipolytic mediators are bona fide modulators of thermogenesis in brown and brite adipocytes. In this Review, we discuss adrenergic and non-adrenergic mechanisms controlling lipolysis and thermogenesis and provide a comprehensive overview of pro- and anti-lipolytic mediators.

Keywords: Brown adipocytes; Energy balance; Hormones; Receptors; Signalling pathways; Uncoupling protein 1.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interestsThe authors declare no competing or financial interests.

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