With approximately 25% of dysmenorrheic patients reporting no improvement with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a study was devised to evaluate the effectiveness of a laparoscopic technique for the interruption of the uterosacral nerves. In a double-blind study of 21 patients with primary dysmenorrhea, 81% (9 of 11) reported significant relief from menstrual pain after the surgery. Performed as an outpatient procedure, laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation may alleviate dysmenorrheic complaints when other modalities have failed. Half the treated women reported continued relief of menstrual pain at 12 months. These results suggest that uterosacral nerve interruption may prove an effective alternative treatment for this menstrual disorder.