The Impact of Baked Egg and Baked Milk Diets on IgE- and Non-IgE-Mediated Allergy

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Oct;55(2):118-138. doi: 10.1007/s12016-018-8669-0.


Baked milk (BM) and baked egg (BE) diets are increasingly used in the management of milk and egg allergy, rather than avoidance. Children with tolerance versus reactivity to BM and BE may have smaller skin prick test and lower specific IgE, and BM-tolerant children have less basophil reactivity and more peripheral T regulatory cells. However, most milk- and egg-allergic children tolerate BM and BE and an individual's reactivity is unpredictable. Non-reactivity is due to conformational changes in the allergens. Significant differences in the published advice about methods of introduction exist from graded introduction at home to a medically supervised full dose. These approaches carry different risks and may have different immunological effects. Reactivity to BM is a predictor of a severe milk allergy. Therefore, medical supervision for BM and BE introduction is prudent. The baked diet allows dietary liberation. Most, but not all, BM- and BE-tolerant children continue eating the baked foods. The prognosis of children who can eat BM and BE is favorable with likely resolution of their allergy over the next few years. Murine models of BE diets demonstrate that heated egg can impart clinical protection against anaphylaxis and cause immune changes. Most observational human studies of BM and BE diets demonstrate clinical resolution of allergy and favorable immune changes versus regular care controls. However, the one randomized controlled trial for the BE diet in BE-tolerant children did not support an immune-modifying effect of the BE diet. Another study of BE immunotherapy is expected to be completed in 2018. There is currently no evidence for prevention of allergy with the baked diets. There may be a future role for BM and BE in liberating the diets of individuals with non-IgE-mediated allergy given recent studies that a subset of these patients can consume BM without a clinical reaction.

Keywords: Baked; Egg; Food allergy; Heated; Immunotherapy; Milk.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Allergens / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Cooking
  • Diet Therapy
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Egg Hypersensitivity / immunology*
  • Egg Proteins / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Delayed / immunology*
  • Immunoglobulin E / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Milk
  • Milk Hypersensitivity / immunology*
  • Milk Proteins / immunology*
  • Ovum


  • Allergens
  • Egg Proteins
  • Milk Proteins
  • Immunoglobulin E