Core-shell heterostructures have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique properties and broad range of applications in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Conversely, the effective synthesis of Bi2S3 nanorod core@ amorphous carbon shell heterostructure remains an important challenge. In this study, C@Bi2S3 core-shell heterostructures with enhanced supercapacitor performance were synthesized via sacrificial- template-free one-pot-synthesis method. The highest specific capacities of the C@Bi2S3 core shell was 333.43 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. Core-shell-structured C@Bi2S3 exhibits 1.86 times higher photocatalytic H2 production than the pristine Bi2S3 under simulated solar light irradiation. This core-shell feature of C@Bi2S3 provides efficient charge separation and transfer owing to the formed heterojunction and a short radial transfer path, thus efficiently diminishing the charge recombination; it also facilitates plenty of active sites for the hydrogen evolution reaction owing to its mesoporous nature. These outcomes will open opportunities for developing low-cost and noble-metal-free efficient electrode materials for water splitting and supercapacitor applications.