The role of menopause on the relationship between metabolic risk factors and periodontal disease via salivary oxidative parameters

J Periodontol. 2018 Mar;89(3):331-340. doi: 10.1002/JPER.17-0314. Epub 2018 Feb 28.


Background: Periodontal disease is shown to be aggravated by an increase in the count of metabolic risk factors. This study aims to evaluate the effects of metabolic risk factors on periodontal parameters and salivary oxidative stress markers related to menopausal status.

Methods: One hundred and seventy-six women were categorized according to menopausal status, either premenopause (Pre/M) (n = 86) or postmenopause (Post/M) (n = 90). The count of metabolic risk factors was evaluated. Sociodemographics and systemic status were determined via questionnaire and medical records. After clinical periodontal measurements and saliva collection, myeloperoxidase (MPO), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and automatic colorimetric method. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was also calculated.

Results: The count of metabolic risk factors was higher in the Post/M group than the Pre/M group. Periodontal parameters and TOS levels were elevated by an increase in the count of metabolic risk factors. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that periodontal (clinical attachment level and missed teeth) and oxidative (MPO and OSI) parameters increased and TAOC levels decreased due to menopause. Additionally, positive relationships between periodontal and oxidative parameters were determined.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that salivary oxidative stress level may be an indicator of worsened periodontal status related to menopause and the count of metabolic risk factors.

Keywords: Menopause; metabolic syndrome X; oxidative stress; periodontal diseases; risk factors; saliva.

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Periodontal Diseases*
  • Risk Factors
  • Saliva