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, 14 (4), 237-250

Nontraumatic Intracerebral Haemorrhage in Young Adults


Nontraumatic Intracerebral Haemorrhage in Young Adults

Turgut Tatlisumak et al. Nat Rev Neurol.


Nontraumatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a common subtype of stroke with a poor prognosis, high mortality and long-term morbidity. The incidence of ICH increases with age. ICH has not been widely investigated in young adults (herein defined as aged ∼18-50 years) despite an annual incidence of ∼5 per 100,000 individuals. Furthermore, ICH characteristics differ between young and elderly patients. Risk factors for ICH are surprisingly common in young adults, in whom ICH is often caused by structural lesions or hypertension, and only rarely by anticoagulation therapy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (which are common predisposing factors in elderly patients). High short-term mortality (17% at 3 months) and long-term mortality (>25% at 10 years) persist even in contemporary series from high-income countries, and long-term disability is very common. Thus, an aggressive approach to identifying treatable underlying conditions and preventing ICH recurrence is indicated in young patients, although treatment strategies have generally not been investigated specifically in this age group. This narrative Review summarizes existing knowledge on the epidemiology, risk factors, causes, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of ICH in young adults. We provide comparisons with the population of elderly patients with ICH and discuss challenges for future research.

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