Little is known about the relationship between sleep and chemosensation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between chemosensory function and sleep duration, quality, and architecture. A total of 56 nonobese (body mass index <30 kg/m2) female participants who denied having diagnosed sleep disorders completed testing. Sleep was measured for two nights using a single-channel (A1-A2) electroencephalogram (Zmachine). Sweet taste threshold and preference as well as olfactory threshold, recognition ability, and pleasantness ratings were evaluated. Sweet taste preference was correlated with total sleep time (TST) (P = 0.0074) as well as with the sum of rapid eye movement (REM) and stage N3/slow wave sleep (SWS) duration (P = 0.0008). Participants who slept more than the average TST or more than the average REM + SWS time preferred lower concentrations of sweetness (P = 0.041 and 0.049, respectively), than those whose sleep times fell below the means. Multiple linear regression revealed that REM and SWS predicted ~18% of the variance of sweet taste preference. These findings suggest that scientific and consumer studies related to sweet preference might benefit from screening participants for short sleep duration prior to testing.