One hundred and four patients were randomised for the study. Fifty-five were entered into the D-Trp-6-LHRH group and 49 into the orchiectomy group. All pre-treatment patient characteristics were similar and testosterone levels at 1 month or later were in the castrate range in both groups. Forty-six patients (83%) in the D-Trp-6-LHRH group and 40 (82%) in the orchiectomy group had a partial remission or stable disease at 3 months or later. There was no significant difference between the groups for response or survival. Three patients in the D-Trp-6-LHRH group had a disease "flare" in the first 10 days of treatment. The flare symptoms resolved by the end of 4 to 8 weeks. The incidence of flushing, decreased libido and impotence was similar in both groups. Although there was less psychological morbidity in the D-Trp-6-LHRH group the difference did not reach statistical significance. Our results indicate that long-acting D-Trp-6-LHRH offers a safe and highly effective alternative to orchiectomy.