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Review
. 2018 Apr 4;66(13):3277-3290.
doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05984. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets

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Review

Radioligand Recognition of Insecticide Targets

John E Casida. J Agric Food Chem. .

Abstract

Insecticide radioligands allow the direct recognition and analysis of the targets and mechanisms of toxic action critical to effective and safe pest control. These radioligands are either the insecticides themselves or analogs that bind at the same or coupled sites. Preferred radioligands and their targets, often in both insects and mammals, are trioxabicyclooctanes for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, avermectin for the glutamate receptor, imidacloprid for the nicotinic receptor, ryanodine and chlorantraniliprole for the ryanodine receptor, and rotenone or pyridaben for NADH+ ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Pyrethroids and other Na+ channel modulator insecticides are generally poor radioligands due to lipophilicity and high nonspecific binding. For target site validation, the structure-activity relationships competing with the radioligand in the binding assays should be the same as that for insecticidal activity or toxicity except for rapidly detoxified or proinsecticide analogs. Once the radioligand assay is validated for relevance, it will often help define target site modifications on selection of resistant pest strains, selectivity between insects and mammals, and interaction with antidotes and other chemicals at modulator sites. Binding assays also serve for receptor isolation and photoaffinity labeling to characterize the interactions involved.

Keywords: GABA; and ryanodine receptors; glutamate; nicotinic.

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