Factors associated with prostate specific antigen testing in Australians: Analysis of the New South Wales 45 and Up Study

Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 9;8(1):4261. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22589-y.


Australia has one of the highest incidence rates of prostate cancer (PC) worldwide, due in part to widespread prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. We aimed to identify factors associated with PSA testing in Australian men without a diagnosis of prostate cancer or prior prostate disease. Participants were men joining the 45 and Up Study in 2006-2009, aged ≥45 years at recruitment. Self-completed questionnaires were linked to cancer registrations, hospitalisations, health services data and deaths. Men with a history of PC, radical prostatectomy or a "monitoring" PSA test for prostate disease were excluded. We identified Medicare reimbursed PSA tests during 2012-2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between having PSA tests and factors of interest. Of the 62,765 eligible men, 51.8% had at least one screening PSA test during 2012-2014. Factors strongly associated with having a PSA test included having 27+ general practitioner consultations (versus 3-9 consultations; OR = 2.00; 95%CI = 1.90-2.11), benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment (versus none; OR = 1.59(95%CI = 1.49-1.70), aged 60-69 years (versus 50-59 years; OR = 1.54; 95%CI = 1.48-1.60). These results emphasise the important role of primary care in decision making about PSA testing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Early Detection of Cancer / statistics & numerical data*
  • Facilities and Services Utilization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • New South Wales
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology*


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen