BASIS: The blood pressure awareness and insight scale

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2018 Apr;20(4):748-756. doi: 10.1111/jch.13248. Epub 2018 Mar 10.


Impaired illness awareness or not accepting that one has hypertension (HTN) may be an important predictor of treatment adherence and optimal blood pressure control. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of available instruments to evaluate HTN awareness, and subsequently present a novel scale that measures the core domains of subjective illness awareness in HTN. Based on the absence of any validated HTN specific measure identified through our review, the Blood Pressure Awareness and Insight Scale (BASIS) was developed ( An online survey platform was used to collect data on 100 participants. BASIS showed good concurrent (r(98) = .65, P < 0.001) and discriminant validity, internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .75), and 1-month test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.77). BASIS is a comprehensive, easy-to-use instrument specifically designed to measure subjective HTN awareness. BASIS may be used in research studies and clinical practice to assess the impact of HTN awareness on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes.

Keywords: high blood pressure; hypertension; illness awareness; illness denial; insight into illness.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Blood Pressure Determination
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / psychology*
  • Internet
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Software
  • Treatment Adherence and Compliance