Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the most frequent monogenic auto-inflammatory disease. FMF is an autosomal recessive disease, which affects populations from Mediterranean origin and is associated with MEFV gene mutations encoding for the protein pyrin. Pyrin activation enhances the secretion of interleukin 1 by myelo-monocytic cells. Main features of the disease are acute attacks of serositis mainly located on the abdomen, less frequently on chest and joints, accompanied by fever and biological inflammatory markers elevation. Usually attacks last 1 to 3 days and spontaneously stop. A daily oral colchicine intake of 1 to 2mg/day is able to prevent attack's occurrence, frequency, intensity and duration among most patients. Colchicine is also able to prevent the development of inflammatory amyloidosis, the most severe complication of FMF. This state of the art article will focus on the diagnosis of FMF, the treatment and an update on the pathophysiology including the recent described dominant form of MEFV-associated new auto-inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: Colchicine; Familial Mediterranean fever; Fièvre méditerranéenne familiale; Interleukine 1; Interleukin 1; MEFV; Pyrin; Pyrine.
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