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Review
. 2018 Jun;42(3):303-308.
doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12777. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Prevalence of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use Among Youth Globally: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Country Level Data

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Review

Prevalence of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) Use Among Youth Globally: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Country Level Data

Sze Lin Yoong et al. Aust N Z J Public Health. .

Abstract

Objective: To describe the prevalence and change in prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use in youth by country and combustible smoking status.

Methods: Databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to December 2015. Studies describing the prevalence of ENDS use in the general population aged ≤20 years in a defined geographical region were included. Where multiple estimates were available within countries, prevalence estimates of ENDS use were pooled for each country separately.

Results: Data from 27 publications (36 surveys) from 13 countries were included. The prevalence of ENDS ever use in 2013-2015 among youth were highest in Poland (62.1%; 95%CI: 59.9-64.2%), and lowest in Italy (5.9%; 95%CI: 3.3-9.2%). Among non-smoking youth, the prevalence of ENDS ever use in 2013-2015 varied, ranging from 4.2% (95%CI: 3.8-4.6%) in the US to 14.0% in New Zealand (95%CI: 12.7-15.4%). The prevalence of ENDS ever use among current tobacco smoking youth was the highest in Canada (71.9%, 95%CI: 70.9-72.8%) and lowest in Italy (29.9%, 95%CI: 18.5-42.5%). Between 2008 and 2015, ENDS ever use among youth increased in Poland, Korea, New Zealand and the US; decreased in Italy and Canada; and remained stable in the UK.

Conclusions: There is considerable heterogeneity in ENDS use among youth globally across countries and also between current smokers and non-smokers. Implications for public health: Population-level survey data on ENDS use is needed to inform public health policy and messaging globally.

Keywords: electronic nicotine delivery systems; smoking; youth.

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