Study objective: Peri-intubation hypoxia is an important adverse event of out-of-hospital rapid sequence intubation. The aim of this project is to determine whether a clinical bundle encompassing positioning, apneic oxygenation, delayed sequence intubation, and goal-directed preoxygenation is associated with decreased peri-intubation hypoxia compared with standard out-of-hospital rapid sequence intubation.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective, before-after study using data from a suburban emergency medical services (EMS) system in central Texas. The study population included all adults undergoing out-of-hospital intubation efforts, excluding those in cardiac arrest. The before-period intervention was standard rapid sequence intubation using apneic oxygenation at flush flow, ketamine, and a paralytic. The after-period intervention was a care bundle including patient positioning (elevated head, sniffing position), apneic oxygenation, delayed sequence intubation (administration of ketamine to facilitate patient relaxation and preoxygenation with a delayed administration of paralytics), and goal-directed preoxygenation. The primary outcome was the rate of peri-intubation hypoxia, defined as the percentage of patients with a saturation less than 90% during the intubation attempt.
Results: The before group (October 2, 2013, to December 13, 2015) included 104 patients and the after group (August 8, 2015, to July 14, 2017) included 87 patients. The 2 groups were similar in regard to sex, age, weight, ethnicity, rate of trauma, initial oxygen saturation, rates of initial hypoxia, peri-intubation peak SpO2, preintubation pulse rate and systolic blood pressure, peri-intubation cardiac arrest, and first-pass and overall success rates. Compared with the before group, the after group experienced less peri-intubation hypoxia (44.2% versus 3.5%; difference -40.7% [95% confidence interval -49.5% to -32.1%]) and higher peri-intubation nadir SpO2 values (100% versus 93%; difference 5% [95% confidence interval 2% to 10%]).
Conclusion: In this single EMS system, a care bundle encompassing patient positioning, apneic oxygenation, delayed sequence intubation, and goal-directed preoxygenation was associated with lower rates of peri-intubation hypoxia than standard out-of-hospital rapid sequence intubation.
Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.