Transmission and Epidemiology of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 and 4 Infections

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2018 Nov 1;8(11):a032144. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a032144.


Following the introduction of robust serological and molecular tools, our understanding of the epidemiology of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has improved considerably in recent years. Current thinking suggests that consumption of pork meat products is the key route of infection in humans, but it is certainly not the only one. Other routes of infection include environmental spread, contaminated water, and via the human blood supply. The epidemiology of HEV genotype (gt)3 and gt4 is complex, as there are several sources and routes of infection, and it is likely that these vary between and within countries and over time.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cross Infection / epidemiology
  • Cross Infection / prevention & control
  • Cross Infection / transmission
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Genes, Viral / genetics
  • Genotype
  • Global Health
  • Hepatitis E / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis E / prevention & control
  • Hepatitis E / transmission*
  • Hepatitis E virus / genetics
  • Iatrogenic Disease / epidemiology
  • Iatrogenic Disease / prevention & control
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  • Prevalence
  • RNA, Viral / isolation & purification


  • RNA, Viral