Design and Biological Evaluation of Antifouling Dihydrostilbene Oxime Hybrids

Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2018 Apr;20(2):257-267. doi: 10.1007/s10126-018-9802-z. Epub 2018 Mar 13.


By combining the recently reported repelling natural dihydrostilbene scaffold with an oxime moiety found in many marine antifoulants, a library of nine antifouling hybrid compounds was developed and biologically evaluated. The prepared compounds were shown to display a low antifouling effect against marine bacteria but a high potency against the attachment and growth of microalgae down to MIC values of 0.01 μg/mL for the most potent hybrid. The mode of action can be characterized as repelling via a reversible non-toxic biostatic mechanism. Barnacle cyprid larval settlement was also inhibited at low μg/mL concentrations with low levels or no toxicity observed. Several of the prepared compounds performed better than many reported antifouling marine natural products. While several of the prepared compounds are highly active as antifoulants, no apparent synergy is observed by incorporating the oxime functionality into the dihydrostilbene scaffold. This observation is discussed in light of recently reported literature data on related marine natural antifoulants and antifouling hybrids as a potentially general strategy for generation of improved antifoulants.

Keywords: Antifouling; Batatasin; Dihydrostilbene; Hybrid; Ianthelline; Oxime.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Biofouling / prevention & control*
  • Larva / drug effects
  • Microalgae / drug effects
  • Oximes / chemistry
  • Oximes / pharmacology*
  • Stilbenes / chemistry
  • Stilbenes / pharmacology*
  • Thoracica / drug effects


  • Oximes
  • Stilbenes