Novel Approach for a PTX/VEGF Dual Drug Delivery System in Cardiovascular Applications-An Innovative Bulk and Surface Drug Immobilization

Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2018 Jun;8(3):719-728. doi: 10.1007/s13346-018-0507-7.


The successive incorporation of several drugs into the polymeric bulk of implants mostly results in loss of considerable quantity of one drug, and/or the loss in quality of the coating and also in changes of drug release time points. A dual drug delivery system (DDDS) based on poly-L-lactide (PLLA) copolymers combining the effective inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation while simultaneously promoting re-endothelialization was successfully developed. To overcome possible antagonistic drug interactions and the limitation of the polymeric bulk material as release system for dual drugs, a novel concept which combines the bulk and surface drug immobilization for a DDDS was investigated. The advantage of this DDDS is that the bulk incorporation of fluorescein diacetate (FDAc) (model drug for paclitaxel (PTX)) via spray coating enhanced the subsequent cleavable surface coupling of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via the crosslinker bissulfosuccinimidyl suberate (BS3). In the presence of the embedded FDAc, the VEGF loading and release are about twice times higher than in absence. Furthermore, the DDDS combines the diffusion drug delivery (FDAc or PTX) and the chemical controlled drug release, VEGF via hydrolysable ester bonds, without loss in quantity and quality of the drug release curves. Additionally, the performed in vitro biocompatibility study showed the bimodal influences of PTX and VEGF on human endothelial EA.hy926 cells. In conclusion, it was possible to show the feasibility to develop a novel DDDS which has a high potential for the medical application due to the possible easy and short modification of a polymer-based PTX delivery system.

Keywords: Cleavable bond; Dual drug delivery system; FDAc; P(LLA-co-CL); P(LLA-co-GA); PTX; Surface modification; VEGF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Drug Liberation
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Fluoresceins / administration & dosage
  • Fluoresceins / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Immobilized Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Immobilized Proteins / chemistry
  • Paclitaxel / administration & dosage*
  • Paclitaxel / chemistry
  • Polymers / administration & dosage*
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Surface Properties
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / administration & dosage*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / chemistry


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Fluoresceins
  • Immobilized Proteins
  • Polymers
  • VEGFA protein, human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Paclitaxel
  • diacetylfluorescein