Risk factor, early diagnosis and overall survival on outcome of association between pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus: Changes and advances, a review

Int J Surg. 2018 Apr;52:342-346. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.02.058. Epub 2018 Mar 10.


To review literature addressing determination of the risk factor, early diagnosis and overall survival on outcome among patient of pancreatic cancer associated with diabetes mellitus from the perspective of pancreatic surgery. To identify recent guidelines, clinical pathogenesis, pathological classification, screening methodology and advances in surgical management. It identifies those clinical and surgical variables to predict excellent prognosis in respect of life style changes, ongoing advancement in therapeutic and surgical treatment and postoperative follow up. Approximately 85% pancreatic cancer have impaired glucose tolerance and may be associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes improves following pancreatic resection. This suggest diabetes is caused by pancreatic cancer. New onset glucose intolerance or DM is an earliest manifestation of pancreatic cancer. Recognition of new onset diabetes as an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer leads to diagnosis of asymptomatic, early stage pancreatic cancer. Thus, helps to aid in better diagnosis and therefore prolonging survival rate. Increasing duration of diabetes mellitus is significantly associated with decreasing risk of pancreatic cancer. Elderly patient with new onset diabetes have high risk of having pancreatic cancer compared to general population. New onset hyperglycemia and diabetes serves as an important screening tool to diagnose asymptomatic pancreatic cancer patient and improves pancreatic cancer related survival. DM in association with pancreatic cancer have reduced overall survival rate and increased mortality. Despite of having dismal prognosis of pancreatic cancer, many studies have concluded the survival rate of 5 years. There exists a bidirectional association between pancreatic cancer and DM is found to be a cause of pancreatic cancer as well as complication. The study on pancreatic cancer and diabetes has offered an interesting field of research based study and surgical practices.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Glucose intolerance; Mortality; Pancreatectomy; Pancreatic cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / etiology*
  • Early Detection of Cancer / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pancreas / pathology
  • Pancreas / surgery
  • Pancreatectomy / adverse effects
  • Pancreatectomy / methods
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate