Background: Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. Although short-term calorie restriction (CR) has proven protective in rodent models of acute kidney injury, similar effects have not yet been demonstrated in humans.
Methods and results: CR_KCH (Effect of a Preoperative Calorie Restriction on Renal Function After Cardiac Surgery) is a randomized controlled trial in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a formula diet containing 60% of the daily energy requirement (CR group) or ad libitum food (control group) for 7 days before surgery. In total, 82 patients were enrolled between April 16, 2012, and February 5, 2015. There was no between-group difference in the primary end point of median serum creatinine increment after 24 hours (control group: 0.0 mg/dL [-0.1 - (+0.2) mg/dL]; CR group: 0.0 mg/dL [-0.2 - (+0.2) mg/dL]; P=0.39). CR prevented a rise in median creatinine at 48 hours (control group: +0.1 mg/dL [0.0 - 0.3 mg/dL]; CR group: -0.1 mg/dL [-0.2 - (+0.1) mg/dL]; P=0.03), with most pronounced effects observed in male patients and patients with a body mass index >25. This benefit persisted until discharge: Median creatinine decreased by 0.1 mg/dL (-0.2 - 0.0 mg/dL) in the CR group, whereas it increased by 0.1 mg/dL (0.0 - 0.3 mg/dL; P=0.0006) in the control group. Incidence of acute kidney injury was reduced by 5.8% (41.7% in the CR group compared with 47.5% in the control group). Safety-related events did not differ between groups.
Conclusions: Despite disappointing results with respect to creatinine rise within the first 24 hours, the benefits observed at later time points and the subgroup analyses suggest the protective potential of short-term CR in patients at risk for acute kidney injury, warranting further investigation.
Clinical trial registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01534364.
Keywords: acute kidney injury; calorie restriction; cardiac surgery; dietary restriction; preconditioning.
© 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.