S1PR3 is essential for phosphorylated fingolimod to protect astrocytes against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuroinflammation via inhibiting TLR2/4-NFκB signalling

J Cell Mol Med. 2018 Jun;22(6):3159-3166. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13596. Epub 2018 Mar 13.


Fingolimod (FTY720) is used as an immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis. Numerous studies indicated its neuroprotective effects in stroke. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. This study was intended to investigate the mechanisms of phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which was the principle active molecule in regulating astrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Results demonstrated that pFTY720 could protect astrocytes against OGD-induced injury and inflammatory responses. It significantly decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, including high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Further, studies displayed that pFTY720 could prevent up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) p65 subunit caused by OGD. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3) knockdown could reverse the above change. Moreover, administration of TLR2/4 blocker abolished the protective effects of pFTY720. Taken together, this study reveals that pFTY720 depends on S1PR3 to protect astrocytes against OGD-induced neuroinflammation, due to inhibiting TLR2/4-PI3K-NFκB signalling pathway.

Keywords: astrocyte; fingolimod; neuroinflammation; sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / drug effects
  • Cultural Deprivation
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fingolimod Hydrochloride / chemistry
  • Fingolimod Hydrochloride / pharmacology*
  • HMGB1 Protein / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / chemistry
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Phosphorylation
  • Primary Cell Culture
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / chemistry
  • Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / genetics*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2 / genetics*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics


  • Cytokines
  • HMGB1 Protein
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • NF-kappa B
  • Receptors, Lysosphingolipid
  • S1PR3 protein, rat
  • Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptors
  • Tlr2 protein, rat
  • Tlr4 protein, rat
  • Toll-Like Receptor 2
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Fingolimod Hydrochloride