ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide), a peptide found in granules of mammalian atrial cardiac myocytes, has been shown to be active in regulation of blood pressure and body water homeostasis. The existence of ANP in atrium, pituitary, adrenal gland, and kidney of the rat had been immunocytochemically demonstrated with an antibody against rat ANP (102-126). We used the same antibody in immunocytochemical studies for the detection of ANP in peripheral organs of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri). The antibody stained granules in myocytes of cardiac atria which indicated that it reacted with tree shrew ANP. In contrast to the rat, no immunoreactive cells were found in pituitaries and adrenal glands. However, in the kidneys distal tubules in outer medulla and cortex were labeled. Ascending limbs of distal tubules were intensely stained when either the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) or the indirect immunofluorescence method were used. Collecting ducts and convoluted distal tubules in the outer cortex showed a granular type of staining when the immunofluorescence method was used. These data indicate that ANP is present in epithelial cells of distal tubules and collecting ducts, where it may be involved in the regulation of renal salt excretion.