Mutations in human leucine-rich-repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been found to be the most frequent cause of late-onset Parkinson's Disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large protein with two enzymatic domains, a GTPase and a kinase domain. A cluster of (auto)-phosphorylation sites within the N-terminus of LRRK2 have been shown to be crucial for the localization of LRRK2 and is important for PD pathogenesis. In addition, phosphorylation of sites within the G-domain of the protein affect GTPase activity. Here we discuss the role of these (auto)-phosphorylation sites of LRRK2 and their regulation by phosphatases and upstream kinases.
Keywords: GTPase; Parkinson’s disease; kinase; neuronal degeneration; phosphatases.