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, 13 (3), e0189374
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Salivary Microbial Profiles in Relation to Age, Periodontal, and Systemic Diseases

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Salivary Microbial Profiles in Relation to Age, Periodontal, and Systemic Diseases

Ronaldo Lira-Junior et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Background: Analysis of saliva is emerging as a promising tool to diagnose and monitor diseases which makes determination of the salivary microbial profile in different scenarios essential.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of age, periodontal disease, sex, smoking, and medical conditions on the salivary microbial profile.

Design: A randomly selected sample of 441 individuals was enrolled (51% women; mean age 48.5±16.8). Participants answered a health questionnaire and underwent an oral examination. Stimulated saliva was collected and the counts of 41 bacteria were determined by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

Results: Elderly participants (> 64 years old) presented a significant increase in 24 out of 41 bacterial species compared to adults (≤ 64 years old). Eubacterium nodatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia were significantly higher in participants with generalized bone loss compared to without. Males and non-smokers had higher bacteria counts in saliva. Individuals having mental disorders or muscle and joint diseases showed significantly altered microbial profiles whereas small or no differences were found for subjects with high blood pressure, heart disease, previous heart surgery, bowel disease, tumors, or diabetes.

Conclusion: Age, periodontal status, sex, smoking, and certain medical conditions namely, mental disorders and muscle and joint diseases, might affect the microbial profile in saliva.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Fig 1
Fig 1
Salivary mean counts (x105) of 41 bacterial species in (a) participants ≤ 64 years old and participants > 64 years old and (b, c) according to their periodontal status. *Significantly different between groups (Student’s t test or ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test).
Fig 2
Fig 2
Correlation heatmap of age, periodontal parameters and inflammatory biomarkers with the salivary microorganisms in (a) participants ≤64 years old and (b) participants >64 years old.
Fig 3
Fig 3. Salivary mean counts (x105) of 41 bacterial species in participants with different periodontal status.
*PD+ significantly different from PD- and PD groups. **PD+ significantly different from PD- group (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test).
Fig 4
Fig 4
Salivary mean counts (x105) of 41 bacterial species according to (a) sex and (b) smoking status. *Significantly different between groups (Student’s t test).
Fig 5
Fig 5. Salivary microbial profile in the reference group and in each systemic condition.
*Significantly different in comparison to the reference group (Student’s t test).

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Grant support

The study was initiated and financially supported by the Regional Board of Dental Public Health in the county of Skåne, Sweden. The study was also supported by the Swedish National Graduate School in Odontological Science, the Department of Dental Medicine, Division of Periodontology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm County Council (SOF). RLJ is a recipient of a scholarship through the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Research Support (FAPERJ), Brazil. EAB is a recipient of a grant for half-time position in clinical research environment from the Swedish Research Council (2012-07110). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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