Previous genetic and biochemical studies from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified a critical ribosome-associated quality control complex (RQC) that facilitates resolution of stalled ribosomal complexes. While components of the mammalian RQC have been examined in vitro, a systematic characterization of RQC protein interactions in mammalian cells has yet to be described. Here we utilize both proximity-labeling proteomic approaches, BioID and APEX, and traditional affinity-based strategies to both identify interacting proteins of mammalian RQC members and putative substrates for the RQC resident E3 ligase, Ltn1. Surprisingly, validation studies revealed that a subset of substrates are ubiquitylated by Ltn1 in a regulatory manner that does not result in subsequent substrate degradation. We demonstrate that Ltn1 catalyzes the regulatory ubiquitylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and 2 (RPS6KA1, RPS6KA3). Further, loss of Ltn1 function results in hyperactivation of RSK1/2 signaling without impacting RSK1/2 protein turnover. These results suggest that Ltn1-mediated RSK1/2 ubiquitylation is inhibitory and establishes a new role for Ltn1 in regulating mitogen-activated kinase signaling via regulatory RSK1/2 ubiquitylation. Taken together, our results suggest that mammalian RQC interactions are difficult to observe and may be more transient than the homologous complex in S. cerevisiae and that Ltn1 has RQC-independent functions.