Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established procedure for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. In 2016, there was a tendency for continued activity in this field with 43,636 HCT in 39,313 patients [16,507 allogeneic (42%), 22,806 autologous (58%)] reported by 679 centers in 49 countries in 2016. The main indications were myeloid malignancies 9547 (24%; 96% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 25,618 (65%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1516 (4%; 2% allogeneic), and non-malignant disorders 2459 (6%; 85% allogeneic). There was a remarkable leveling off in the use of unrelated donor HCT being replaced by haploidentical HCT. Continued growth in allogeneic HCT for marrow failure, AML, and MPN was seen, whereas MDS appears stable. Allogeneic HCT for lymphoid malignancies vary in trend with increases for NHL and decreases for Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma. Trends in CLL are not clear, with recent increases after a decrease in activity. In autologous HCT, the use in myeloma continues to expand but is stable in Hodgkin lymphoma. There is a notable increase in autologous HCT for autoimmune disease. These data reflect the most recent advances in the field, in which some trends and changes are likely to be related to development of non-transplant technologies.