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. 2018 Mar 15;15:E32.
doi: 10.5888/pcd15.170355.

Smoke-Free Rules in Homes and Cars Among Smokers and Nonsmokers in Minnesota

Free PMC article

Smoke-Free Rules in Homes and Cars Among Smokers and Nonsmokers in Minnesota

Michael J Parks et al. Prev Chronic Dis. .
Free PMC article


We examined prevalence and predictors of comprehensive smoke-free household rules (ie, smoke-free homes and cars) among smokers and nonsmokers in Minnesota. Data came from the 2014 Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey; weighted analyses consisted of descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Most adult smokers implemented home-only smoke-free rules (43%) while most nonsmokers implemented comprehensive smoke-free rules (home and car; 85%). Comprehensive smoke-free rules were more common among people with high socioeconomic status (SES), married people, and people who did not live with a smoker; those with a child in the home were more likely to implement smoke-free homes but not smoke-free cars. Public health practitioners should focus on addressing the majority of smokers who do not implement comprehensive smoke-free household rules, such as low-SES populations, and addressing caregivers who do not implement smoke-free car rules.


Percentage of smokers and nonsmokers who implemented voluntary smoke-free rules in the home and car, Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey, 2014. Error bars indicate 95% confidence intervals.
CategorySmoker, % (95% Confidence Interval)Nonsmoker, % (95% Confidence Interval)
Home and car19 (16–22)85 (84–86)
Home but not car43 (39–47)10 (9–11)
Car but not home7 (5–9)2 (2–3)
Neither home nor car31 (28–35)4 (3–4)

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