Cost-effectiveness analysis of elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection in stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease patients in France

PLoS One. 2018 Mar 15;13(3):e0194329. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194329. eCollection 2018.


Objective: To assess the cost-effectiveness of the elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) regimen in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment.

Design: This study uses a health economic model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of treating previously untreated and treatment experienced chronic hepatitis C patients who have severe and end stage renal disease with the elbasvir-grazoprevir regimen versus no treatment in the French context. The lifetime homogeneous markovian model comprises of forty combined health states including hepatitis C virus and chronic kidney disease. The model parameters were from a multicentre randomized controlled trial, ANRS CO22 HEPATHER French cohort and literature. 1000 Monte Carlo simulations of patient health states for each treatment strategy are used for probabilistic sensitivity analysis and 95% confidence intervals calculations. The results were expressed in cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained.

Patients: The mean age of patients in the HEPATHER French cohort was 59.6 years and 56% of them were men. 22.3% of patients had a F0 fibrosis stage (no fibrosis), 24.1% a F1 stage (portal fibrosis without septa), 7.1% a F2 stage (portal fibrosis with few septa), 21.4% a F3 stage (numerous septa without fibrosis) and 25% a F4 fibrosis stage (compensated cirrhosis). Among these HCV genotype 1 patients, 30% had severe renal impairment stage 4, 33% had a severe renal insufficiency stage 5 and 37% had terminal severe renal impairment stage 5 treated by dialysis.

Intervention: Fixed-dose combination of direct-acting antiviral agents elbasvir and grazoprevir compared to no-treatment.

Results: EBR/GZR increased the number of life years (6.3 years) compared to no treatment (5.1 years) on a lifetime horizon. The total number of QALYs was higher for the new treatment because of better utility on health conditions (6.2 versus 3.7 QALYs). The incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was of €15,212 per QALY gained for the base case analysis.

Conclusions: This cost-utility model is an innovative approach that simultaneously looks at the disease evolution of chronic hepatitis C and chronic kidney disease. EBR/GZR without interferon and ribavirin, produced the greatest benefit in terms of life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in treatment-naïve or experienced patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease including dialysis patients. Based on shape of the acceptability curve, EBR/GZR can be considered cost-effective at a willingness to pay of €20,000 /QALY for patients with renal insufficiency with severe and end-stage renal disease compared to no treatment.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amides
  • Antiviral Agents / economics*
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzofurans / economics
  • Benzofurans / therapeutic use
  • Carbamates
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis / methods*
  • Cyclopropanes
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / economics
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / methods
  • Female
  • France
  • Genotype
  • Hepacivirus / genetics
  • Hepacivirus / isolation & purification
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / drug therapy*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / economics
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology
  • Humans
  • Imidazoles / economics
  • Imidazoles / therapeutic use
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / economics
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / virology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications
  • Liver Cirrhosis / drug therapy*
  • Liver Cirrhosis / economics
  • Liver Cirrhosis / virology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Economic
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years
  • Quinoxalines / economics
  • Quinoxalines / therapeutic use
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • RNA, Viral / isolation & purification
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Sulfonamides


  • 2-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)-5-(2-(4-(5-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)benzofuran-5-yl)-1H-imidazole
  • Amides
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Benzofurans
  • Carbamates
  • Cyclopropanes
  • Imidazoles
  • Quinoxalines
  • RNA, Viral
  • Sulfonamides
  • grazoprevir

Grant support

This study was funded by MSD France, ( to FM. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.