Background: Nutritional choices, which include the source of dietary fatty acids (FA), have an important significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine on patients with CAD the relationships between Trans fatty acids (Trans FA) and different CAD associated parameters such as inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in addition to Gensini score as a vascular severity index.
Methods: Fatty acid profiles were established by gas chromatography from 111 CAD patients compared to 120 age-matched control group. Lipid peroxidation biomarkers, oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters and Gensini score were studied.
Results: Our study showed a significant decrease of the antioxidant parameters levels such as erythrocyte glutathione peroxydase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, plasma antioxidant status (FRAP) and thiol (SH) groups in CAD patients. On the other hand, catalase activity, conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde were increased. Plasmatic and erythrocyte Trans FA were also increased in CAD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, divergent associations of these Trans FA accumulations were observed with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/ high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio, Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), lipid peroxidation parameters, high-sensitivity C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Gensini score. Especially, elaidic acid (C18:1 trans 9), trans C18:2 isomers and trans 11 eicosanoic acid are correlated with these parameters. Trans FA are also associated with oxidative stress, confirmed by a positive correlation between C20:1 trans 11 and GPx in erythrocytes.
Conclusions: High level of Trans FA was highly associated with the induction of inflammation, oxidative stress and lipoperoxidation which appear to be based on the vascular severity and might be of interest to assess the stage and progression of atherosclerosis. The measurement of these Trans FA would be of great value for the screening of lipid metabolism disorders in CAD patients.
Keywords: Coronary artery disease; Elaidic acid; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Trans C18:2 isomers.