Objective: To evaluate the association of clinical factors on outcomes in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergoing ureteroscopy. Immobility, recurrent urinary tract infection, and lower urinary tract dysfunction contribute to renal stone formation in patients with SCI. Ureteroscopy is a commonly utilized treatment modality; however, surgical complication rates and outcomes have been poorly defined. Evidence guiding safe and effective treatment of stones in this cohort remains scarce.
Methods: Records were retrospectively reviewed for patients with SCI who underwent ureteroscopy for kidney stones from 1996 to 2014 at a single institution. Multivariate relationships were evaluated using a general estimating equation model.
Results: Forty-six patients with SCI underwent a total of 95 ureteroscopic procedures. After treatment, stone-free rate was 17% and 20% with <2-mm fragments. The complication rate was 21%. On multivariate analysis, SCI in cervical (C) levels was associated with higher risk of complications (C3: odds ratio [OR] 3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17-6.98; C6: OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.08-13.53). American Spinal Injury Association Scale A classification was associated with a lower probability of stone-free status (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.03-0.82). Patients averaged 2.2 procedures yet more procedures were associated with lower stone-free status (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.03-0.32). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bladder management modality were not associated with stone-free status or complications.
Conclusion: In patients with SCI, higher injury level and complete SCI were associated with worse stone clearance and more complications. Stone-free rate was 17%. Overall, flexible ureteroscopy is a relatively safe procedure in this population. Alternative strategies should be considered after failed ureteroscopy.
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