The development of novel small molecule inhibitors of the cancer-associated tropomyosin 3.1 (Tpm3.1) provides the ability to examine the metabolic function of specific actin filament populations. We have determined the ability of these anti-Tpm (ATM) compounds to regulate glucose metabolism in mice. Acute treatment (1 h) of wild-type (WT) mice with the compounds (TR100 and ATM1001) led to a decrease in glucose clearance due mainly to suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic islets. The impact of the drugs on GSIS was significantly less in Tpm3.1 knock out (KO) mice indicating that the drug action is on-target. Experiments in MIN6 β-cells indicated that the inhibition of GSIS by the drugs was due to disruption to the cortical actin cytoskeleton. The impact of the drugs on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) was also examined in skeletal muscle ex vivo. In the absence of drug, ISGU was decreased in KO compared to WT muscle, confirming a role of Tpm3.1 in glucose uptake. Both compounds suppressed ISGU in WT muscle, but in the KO muscle there was little impact of the drugs. Collectively, this data indicates that the ATM drugs affect glucose metabolism in vivo by inhibiting Tpm3.1's function with few off-target effects.