Myopia is increasing rapidly worldwide. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of posterior staphyloma, a complication of myopia, and its shape characteristics in relation to age, sex, and axial length (AL) in a Japanese community-based cohort. The right eyes of 3748 participants who underwent fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination were evaluated. Posterior staphyloma prevalence was evaluated using fundus photographs and OCT images. Furthermore, fundus shapes were analyzed by measuring local fundus curvatures on 6 mm cross-line OCT images at intervals of 1 µm. The mean and variance of the curvatures were calculated to represent the fundus shape of each eye for investigation of the relationship between fundus curvature and age, sex, and AL. Seventy-seven eyes (2.05%) had posterior staphyloma. The mean and variance of the fundus curvatures were significantly greater in women than in men and became greater with age, suggesting that the shape of the staphyloma was steeper and less smooth in women and elderly subjects. AL and mean curvature showed a significant correlation (P = 2 × 10-16, R = 0.480), which was significantly affected by age (P < 2 × 10-16). Quantitative analysis of fundus shapes was useful for statistical analysis of posterior staphyloma in relation to age, sex, and AL.