Biomonitoring of human exposure to estrogens most frequently focuses on environmental and dietary estrogens, and infrequently includes measures of exposure to potent endogenous estrogens present in serum. Pregnancy is a developmentally sensitive period during which "added" serum estrogenicity exceeding normal intra-individual daily variability may be of particular relevance. We made repeated measurements of serum concentrations of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), estetrol (E4), daidzein (DDZ), genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA) in thirty pregnant women using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (UPLC-MS/MS) and electrospray ionization (ESI). Serum E1, E2, and E3 concentrations varied significantly (coefficients of variation 9-10%) with broad ranges across the cohort: 1.61-85.1 nM, 9.09-69.7 nM, and 1.5-36.3 nM respectively. BPA (undetected, estimated from total exposure), DDZ and GEN concentrations were 1-5 orders of magnitude lower. The 24-h urinary elimination profiles of endogenous estrogens were each strongly correlated with their corresponding serum concentrations (Pearson's Correlation Coefficients of 0.83 (E1), 0.84 (E2) and 0.94 (E3)). A multivariate regression analysis produced equations for estimating serum concentrations of E1, E2, E3, E4, GEN and DDZ from urinary elimination rates and gestation period, an important step towards non-invasive biomonitoring for assessment of "added" estrogenicity during pregnancy.
Keywords: Biomonitoring; Bisphenol A; Endocrine disruptors; Estrogens; Exposure; Pharmacokinetics; Pregnancy.
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