The 14-3-3 family comprises a group of small proteins that are essential, ubiquitous, and highly conserved across eukaryotes. Overexpression of the 14-3-3 proteins σ, ϵ, ζ, and η correlates with high metastatic potential in multiple cancer types. In Dictyostelium, 14-3-3 promotes myosin II turnover in the cell cortex and modulates cortical tension, cell shape, and cytokinesis. In light of the important roles of 14-3-3 proteins across a broad range of eukaryotic species, we sought to determine how 14-3-3 proteins interact with myosin II. Here, conducting in vitro and in vivo studies of both Dictyostelium (one 14-3-3 and one myosin II) and human proteins (seven 14-3-3s and three nonmuscle myosin IIs), we investigated the mechanism by which 14-3-3 proteins regulate myosin II assembly. Using in vitro assembly assays with purified myosin II tail fragments and 14-3-3, we demonstrate that this interaction is direct and phosphorylation-independent. All seven human 14-3-3 proteins also altered assembly of at least one paralog of myosin II. Our findings indicate a mechanism of myosin II assembly regulation that is mechanistically conserved across a billion years of evolution from amebas to humans. We predict that altered 14-3-3 expression in humans inhibits the tumor suppressor myosin II, contributing to the changes in cell mechanics observed in many metastatic cancers.
Keywords: 14-3-3 protein; Dictyostelium; bipolar filament assembly; cytoskeleton; fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS); human; myosin; surface plasmon resonance (SPR).
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.