Pentagalloyl glucose increases elastin deposition, decreases reactive oxygen species and matrix metalloproteinase activity in pulmonary fibroblasts under inflammatory conditions

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 Apr 30;499(1):24-29. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.03.100. Epub 2018 Mar 19.


Emphysema is characterized by degradation of lung alveoli that leads to poor airflow in lungs. Irreversible elastic fiber degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity leads to loss of elasticity and drives the progression of this disease. We investigated if a polyphenol, pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) can increase elastin production in pulmonary fibroblasts. We also studied the effect of PGG treatment in reducing MMP activity and ROS levels in cells. We exposed rat pulmonary fibroblasts to two different types of inflammatory environments i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to mimic the disease. Parameters like lysyl oxidase (LOX) and elastin gene expression, MMP-9 activity in the medium, lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity and ROS levels were studied to assess the effect of PGG on pulmonary fibroblasts. CSE inhibited lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzyme activity that resulted in a decreased elastin formation. Similarly, TNF-α treated cells showed less elastin in the cell layers. Both these agents caused increase in MMP activity and ROS levels in cells. However, when supplemented with PGG treatment along with these two inflammatory agents, we saw a significant increase in elastin deposition, reduction in both MMP activity and ROS levels. Thus PGG, which has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant properties coupled with its ability to aid in elastic fiber formation, can be a multifunctional drug to potentially arrest the progression of emphysema.

Keywords: Background; COPD; ECM degradation; Emphysema.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Complex Mixtures / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Complex Mixtures / pharmacology
  • Elastin / agonists
  • Elastin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Elastin / biosynthesis
  • Elastin / genetics*
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / pathology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Hydrolyzable Tannins / pharmacology*
  • Inflammation
  • Lung / drug effects
  • Lung / metabolism
  • Lung / pathology
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism
  • Primary Cell Culture
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / genetics
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / analysis*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antioxidants
  • Complex Mixtures
  • Hydrolyzable Tannins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • pentagalloylglucose
  • Elastin
  • Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Mmp9 protein, rat