Long-term evolution of age-related distance esotropia

J AAPOS. 2018 Apr;22(2):97-101. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.12.010. Epub 2018 Mar 15.


Purpose: To evaluate the evolution of horizontal deviation and fusional amplitudes both at distance and at near in patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDET).

Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients diagnosed with ARDET between January 2008 and March 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients with at least 60 months' follow-up were eligible for inclusion. Horizontal deviation, fusional convergence amplitude, and fusional divergence amplitude both at distance and at near were compared.

Results: Of 131 cases reviewed, 31 patients were identified for inclusion. Median age at diagnosis was 73 years. Median distance esodeviation was 6Δ esotropia at initial examination (range, 2Δ-12Δ esotropia) and 8Δ eostropia at final examination (range, 2Δ-25Δ esotropia). Median near deviation was orthophoria at initial examination (range, 10Δ exophoria to 8Δ esophoria) and 4Δ esophoria at final examination (range, 4Δ exophoria to 14Δ esophoria). Median fusional divergence amplitude at distance was 4Δ at initial and at final examinations. At near, median fusional divergence amplitude was 8Δ at initial and at final examinations. Median fusional convergence amplitude at distance was 14Δ at initial examination and 12Δ at final examination. At near, median fusional convergence amplitude was 26Δ at initial and at final examinations. Base-out prisms were prescribed in all patients. In 23 patients the prism correction gradually increased. Strabismus surgery was performed in 3 patients.

Conclusions: Our patients with ARDET experienced a slight increase in distance esodeviation (P < 0.001), whereas no significant change in fusional amplitudes was observed over time (P ≥ 0.05).

MeSH terms

  • Accommodation, Ocular / physiology
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / physiology*
  • Distance Perception / physiology*
  • Esotropia / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oculomotor Muscles / physiopathology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology