Background: Periodontitis and atherosclerosis represent a chronic inflammatory process. The incidence of periodontitis in cardiac patients with atherosclerosis is a well-established fact. The role of viruses in the etiopathogenesis of both has been proposed.
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Torque Teno virus (TTV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cardiac patients with atherosclerosis and coexisting chronic periodontitis (CP).
Materials and methods: Thirty patients (17 males and 13 females) with atherosclerotic plaques and coexisting periodontitis were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Viral DNA was extracted from the subgingival and atheromatous plaque. The presence of CMV, EBV, and TTV in the plaque samples was identified using polymerase chain reaction. The collected data were statistically analyzed for the prevalence of the viruses and Chi-squared test was performed to find out its association with atheroma and CP.
Results: The prevalence of CMV, EBV, and TTV in atheromatous plaque was 63.3%, 56.7%, and 46.7%, respectively, as compared to rates of 80%, 63.3%, and 53.3% in subgingival plaque. Results also indicated no significant association of CMV, EBV, and TTV in both samples (P = 0.08, 0.346, and 0.261, respectively).
Conclusions: There was no significant association of CMV, EBV, and TTV between subgingival and atheromatous plaque. The prevalence of CMV, EBV, and TTV was high in atheromatous plaque. TTV was isolated from more than 50% of participants in atheromatous plaque, which is a significant finding.
Keywords: Atheromatous plaque; Epstein–Barr virus; Torque Teno virus; cardiac patients; chronic periodontitis cytomegalovirus; subgingival plaque.