Around six million people die every year due to diseases caused by smoking, most commonly cancer, cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nicotine replacement therapy, medication and counselling are common methods used to help people quit smoking.
We evaluated the effect of cognitive therapies on smoking cessation. We included 21 randomised controlled trials. The included studies involved adult smokers, different patient groups, and persons at risk of heart disease.
We found that:
Cognitive therapies combined with medication probably improve smoking abstinence rates somewhat, compared to medication only, moderate-quality evidence
Cognitive therapies combined with nicotine replacement therapy may improve smoking abstinence rates somewhat, compared to other interventions combined with nicotine replacement therapy, low-quality evidence.
Cognitive therapies may improve smoking abstinence rates, compared to other interventions, up to 12 months after the end of the intervention, low-quality evidence.
Cognitive therapies may have little or no effect on smoking abstinence rates, compared to usual care or minimal intervention, low-quality evidence.
We are uncertain whether cognitive therapies combined with medication change smoking abstinence rates compared to supportive therapy combined with medication.
Keywords: Cognitive therapy; Life style; Health behavior; Tobacco use.
Copyright © 2017 by The Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH).