Purpose: To investigate the surgical results and morphologic characteristics of macular hole (MH) and macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) associated with extreme myopia.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive cases with axial length ≥28 mm who were treated with pars plana vitrectomy for MH or MHRD. The choroidal and scleral thickness at the fovea, presence of dome-shaped macula, and the height of posterior staphyloma 3 mm from the fovea were measured from postoperative optical coherence tomography images.
Results: Significant improvement in visual acuity was obtained postoperatively in both MH (16 eyes; 15 patients) and MHRD (19 eyes; 18 patients) groups (P < 0.05). Final MH closure rate was not significantly different between the groups (MH: 15/16, MHRD: 14/19, P = 0.19). Axial length was not significantly different between the groups (MH: 30.5 ± 1.5 mm, MHRD: 29.6 ± 1.3 mm, P = 0.098). Eyes with MH had significantly greater choroidal thickness (MH: 61.9 ± 66.0 μm, MHRD: 24.1 ± 19.8 μm, P = 0.045), greater scleral thickness (MH: 294 ± 77 μm, MHRD: 232 ± 89 μm, P = 0.008), higher frequency of dome-shaped macula (MH: 6/16, MHRD: 1/19, P = 0.032), and lower staphyloma height (MH: 190 ± 113 μm, MHRD: 401 ± 156 μm, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Surgical outcomes were generally favorable. The pathogenetic differences between the two conditions may be attributable to differences with respect to eye morphology.