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Multicenter Study
. 2018 Mar 19;13(3):e0193494.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193494. eCollection 2018.

Factors Associated With Uncontrolled Blood Pressure Among Ghanaians: Evidence From a Multicenter Hospital-Based Study

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Free PMC article
Multicenter Study

Factors Associated With Uncontrolled Blood Pressure Among Ghanaians: Evidence From a Multicenter Hospital-Based Study

Fred Stephen Sarfo et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: The burden of uncontrolled hypertension in Low-and-Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is high, with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and chronic renal failure in these settings.

Objective: To assess the factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure control in a cross-section of Ghanaian hypertensive subjects involved in an on-going multicenter epidemiological study aimed at improving access to hypertension treatment.

Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 2,870 participants with hypertension with or without diabetes who were enrolled at 5 hospitals in Ghana (2 tertiary, 2 district and 1 rural hospital). Data on demographics, medical history, lifestyle factors, anti-hypertensive medications and treatment adherence were collected. The 14-item version of the Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale was used to assess adherence to treatment in 3 domains namely adherence to medications, salt intake and clinic appointments. Questionnaires on knowledge, attitudes and practices on hypertension, sources of antihypertensive medications and challenges with accessing these medications were also administered. Blood pressure, weight and height were measured for each subject at enrollment. Factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (>140/90mmHg) were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model.

Results: The mean ± SD age of study participants was 58.9 ± 16.6 years, with a female preponderance (76.8%). Among study participants, 1,213 (42.3%) study participants had blood pressure measurements under control. Factors that remained significantly associated with uncontrolled blood pressure with adjusted OR (95% CI) included receiving therapy at a tertiary level of care: 2.47 (1.57-3.87), longer duration of hypertension diagnosis: 1.01 (1.00-1.03), poor adherence to therapy: 1.21 (1.09-1.35) for each 5 points higher score on the Hill-Bone scale, reported difficulties in obtaining antihypertensive medications: 1.24 (1.02-1.49) and number of antihypertensive medications prescribed: 1.32 (1.21-1.44).

Conclusion: We have found high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure among Ghanaian patients with hypertension accessing healthcare in public institutions. The system-level and individual-level factors associated with poor blood pressure control should be addressed to improve hypertension management among Ghanaians.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have the following competing interests: Funding for this study was provided by MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi (each a Participant Company) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively, the Funders) through the New Venture Fund (NVF). FSS, LMM, GB, DA, JPR, DOA received honoraria from NVF for participation in the present study. There are no patents, products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter our adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors.

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Grant support

Funding for this study was provided by MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi (each a Participant Company) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (collectively, the Funders) through the New Venture Fund (NVF). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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