MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes of about 22 nucleotides, which are involved in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation in animals and plants. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is clinically silent until the majority of β cells are destroyed, and a large number of studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in the pathological mechanism of T1D. In this review, we searched the related research in recent years and summarized the important roles of miRNAs in T1D diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, we summarized the current understanding of miRNA-mediated regulation mechanisms of gene expression in the T1D pathogenesis as well as related signaling pathways with a focus on the important roles of miRNAs and their antagonists in T1D pathogenesis, and brought insight into the potential therapeutic value of miRNAs for T1D patients. In view of the important roles of miRNAs in T1D pathology, disordered miRNAs may be important diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for patients with T1D.
Keywords: autoimmune disease; cellules β; diabète de type 1; insulin; insuline; maladie auto-immune; micro-ARN; microRNA; type 1 diabetes; β cells.