Vascular diseases refer to medical conditions that narrow blood vessels. Narrowed cardiac or cerebral arteries can lead to myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Risk factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes may induce either cardiovascular or cerebral complications. Based on current research, garlic favorably affects atherosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes, and helps decrease the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Garlic has been utilized for hundreds of years as a natural health remedy. New research is emerging regarding its effectiveness in treating common diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. The underlying mechanisms by which garlic, and its byproducts, can alter pathophysiology have begun to be elucidated by these studies. Garlic is a prominent topic for future research regarding its potential as an adjuvant to conventional pharmacotherapy for these common health conditions. In this mini-review, we discuss the current state of the literature regarding garlic and its effects in patients with vascular disease. Specifically, we decided to briefly discuss the key points regarding the mechanisms underlying garlic's anti-hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemic, and hypoglycemic effects. This allows the readers to understand each process while keeping the paper concise. These mechanisms can be further explored in the original articles, at the reader's discretion.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; diabetes; hypertension; hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect; inflammation; oxidative.