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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2018 Dec;33(6):981-989.
doi: 10.1016/j.jopan.2017.12.010. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Effects of Virtual Reality and External Cold and Vibration on Pain in 7- To 12-Year-Old Children During Phlebotomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Randomized Controlled Trial

Effects of Virtual Reality and External Cold and Vibration on Pain in 7- To 12-Year-Old Children During Phlebotomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Gülçin Ö Gerçeker et al. J Perianesth Nurs. .

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the virtual reality (VR) and external cold and vibration methods on pain scores in children aged 7 to 12 years during phlebotomy.

Design: A randomized controlled study.

Methods: The sample of children (n = 121) was allocated to the groups (group 1, VR; group 2, external cold and vibration; group 3, control) by blocked randomization. Pain scores were assessed after the phlebotomy using self-report, parent's reports, report from the nurse who attempted the phlebotomy, and researchers' report with the Wong-Baker FACES scale.

Findings: Pain scores were determined to be lower in groups 1 and 2. Although there was no difference between the groups 1 and 2, a statistically significant difference was found between groups 1 or 2 and group 3 based on all pain scores.

Conclusions: Results suggest that VR and external cold and vibration are effective in reducing the pain in 7- to 12-year-old children during phlebotomy. VR can be used safely for the pain management of children who are growing up in the age of technology.

Keywords: child; external cold and vibration; pain; phlebotomy; virtual reality.

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