Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for most cases of lung cancer. The peel oil of mandarin Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Dancy (MPO) is a natural source of essential oils and carotenoids. Volatile and non-volatile lipid compounds were characterized by chromatographic methods. We demonstrate that MPO causes a dose-dependent growth inhibition of NSCLC model cells (A549) in culture and tumour growth in vivo of the same cells implanted in nude mice fed with MPO-supplemented diets. MPO induced cell cycle arrest mainly at the G0/G1 phase and reduced the amount of membrane-bound Ras protein along with apoptosis induction. No toxicological effect was found in liver parameters analysed in treated mice and histopathological analyses of their organs did not show any morphological changes. In conclusion, the data suggest that MPO possesses significant antitumor activity without causing systemic toxicity, proposing it as a dietary supplement that may be helpful in cancer prevention.